25 Dec

family therapy scholarly articles

Copyright: © 2018 Cluxton-Keller, Bruce. A fixed effects model showed a trend in improving family functioning at post-intervention in intervention group couples. Second, barriers may create difficulties in delivering and receiving these family therapeutic in real world settings. Oakley, Clare The patient's perceived problem(s) are put into a different meaning-frame that provides new perspectives and therefore potentially makes new behaviours possible. The current study shares four similar methods with the previously published systematic reviews and meta-analyses. The randomised trials in anorexia nervosa provide a good evidence base for systemic therapy. Family intervention had no effect on the number of individuals who killed themselves during the follow-up periods of the studies. Family therapy is a type of psychological counseling (psychotherapy) that helps family members improve communication and resolve conflicts. For example, one study compared depressed and non-depressed women at two months post-delivery and found that women with depressive symptoms perceived that their partners did not share similar interests, provided little companionship, expressed disinterest in infant care, did not provide a feeling of connection, did not encourage them to get assistance to cope with difficulties, and expressed disagreement in infant care [16]. Another study used an interpersonal model that included specific strategies for couples to increase perspective-taking, support and responsiveness [35]. here. Fig 2, which summarizes the evaluators’ judgments about each risk of bias item presented across all included studies. The searches returned articles published between 1995 and 2017. Feature Flags: { Systemic therapy can be used both on its own as well as in combination with other treatments. The Cochrane review focused primarily on the following outcomes: suicide, relapse and hospital admission. Fixed effects models showed statistically significant reductions in depressive symptoms at post-intervention in intervention group mothers. Communication training, for example, is a behavioural intervention strategy with an initial emphasis on clear and direct expression of positive feelings, ideas and plans. At 1-year follow-up, approximately 75% had reached their target weight and 85% were menstruating. and The team also observed that if the ‘identified patient’ improved, the family could become destabilised, seemingly resisting or blocking the clinical improvement of the patient – as if they needed the patient to remain unwell. Yes Practitioners therefore increasingly use the term systemic therapy, which is also more informative because some of the work often involves the wider system. A 5-year follow-up (Reference Eisler, Dare and RussellEisler et al, 1997) of this cohort confirmed that people with anorexia with a short history of illness continued to do well, with 90% having a good long-term outcome. ). and Standard deviations were pooled using a very conservative formula that assumed the baseline and post-intervention measures were not correlated since these were not reported in the included studies [49]. PLoS ONE 13(6): No, Is the Subject Area "Metaanalysis" applicable to this article? This area of research is innovative and the field is substantially growing. All of the prevention studies (n = 5) included in our review used family therapeutic interventions that were theoretically based in cognitive-behavioral models in the experimental groups. Bias in cluster randomized trials was assessed using additional criteria: 1) recruitment bias as it pertains to the randomization of all study sites at the same time; 2) baseline imbalance as it applies to the stratification or pair-matched randomization of sites; 3) explanations as to why any study sites were excluded from the analysis; 4) incorrect analysis; and 5) comparability with traditional RCTs [54]. A strategic systemic therapist may re-frame the woman's depression as being an unselfish act designed to protect her partner from his own depression and prescribe a ritual where for a week, on uneven days, the partner needs to experiment with talking about his own worries. It’s a whole new approach to understanding human behavior” (p. 3). and What's more, parents can play a variety of roles: They can be co-therapists, sources of support or teachers of new skills, to name a few. Our moderation analysis of the level of family involvement in the intervention was restricted to the five prevention studies. All primary outcomes were continuous. This technique focuses on questioning the various family members' beliefs and perceptions regarding relationships. Yes Family therapy is based in systems theory, which generally focuses on the ways in which family interactions affect each individual family member’s functioning and affect the family’s overall functioning [29–30]. Brief review of major systemic therapy approaches, Evidence for the effectiveness of systemic therapy for eating disorder, Systemic family and couple therapy for mood disorders, Reference Gustafsson, Kjellman and Cederbald, Reference Silver, Williams and Worthington, Reference Wilson, Fairburn, Nathan and Gorman, Reference Tarrier, Barrowclough and Vaughn, Reference Emanuels-Zuurveen and Emmelkamp, Reference Klerman, Weissman and Rounsaville, A psychoeducational program for families of patients with schizophrenia, Family therapy outcome research: a trial for families, therapists and researchers, Empirically supported couple and family interventions for marital distress and adult mental health problems, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Milan Systemic Family Therapy: Theoretical and Practical Aspects, Influence of family life on the course of schizophrenic disorders: a replication, Evidence-based practice in family therapy and systemic consultation I, Evidence-based practice in family therapy and systemic consultation II, A randomised clinical trial of inpatient family intervention, V. Results for affective disorders, A controlled study of the effect of therapies aimed at adolescent and family psychopathology in anorexia nervosa, Chronic eating disorders in therapy: clinical stories using family systems and psychoanalytic approaches, Psychological therapies for adults with anorexia nervosa: a randomised controlled trial of out-patient treatments, Family therapy for bulimia nervosa in adolescents: an exploratory study, Meta-analytic review of marital therapy outcome research, Family therapy treatment outcomes for alcoholism, Family and individual therapy in anorexia nervosa. Structural family therapists intervene with the aim of making the family structure approximate this normative model. All couples were either married or in a committed relationship. We also included studies with measures of family functioning at baseline and at least one post-intervention time point. A total of four studies (three prevention studies and one treatment study) were included in the analysis. The concept of family homeostasis and related concepts such as family rules and family feedback mechanisms came under heavy fire in a recent article by … The results demonstrated that adolescent patients with a short duration of their illness did significantly better with family therapy than the control treatment. In terms of general outcome at the end of the 1-year out-patient treatment and on 5-year follow-up (Reference Eisler, Dare and RussellEisler et al, 1997), the results were disappointing. Schweitzer-Rothers, Jochen This article provides counselors with an introduction to the knowledge and skills involved in providing narrative family therapy (NFT). Studies targeting primaparous and multiparous women were included. These interventions could address co-parenting, couple relational dynamics, or dynamics involving extended family members/ next of kin. The intent of this article is to describe the importance of one psychoanalytic concept, countertransference, in family treatment by a review of the literature on the subject. No eLetters have been published for this article. }. Earn 1.0 CE Credits Lynn Ponton on the Challenges and Joys of Working with Teens . JMFT is a peer-reviewed journal that advances the professional understanding of marital and family functioning and the most effective psychotherapeutic treatment of couple and family distress. COFT publishes applied and basic research with implications for systemic theory, treatment, and policy. Conceptualization, The trial involved an initial baseline assessment of patients with depression and their partners, followed by an intervention (treatment) phase. Several studies have also shown that marital/relationship dissatisfaction is associated with perinatal depression [16–17, 25–28]. The review systematically poses this question when examining each of the seven key modalities. A total of seven studies (n = two cluster randomized trials, n = five randomized controlled trials) were included in the qualitative synthesis. Case illustrations will then be used to show how the supervisor of a family treatment case elicited the countertransference in order to move the therapy forward. To date, some 19 RCTs have been identified. Depressive symptoms develop anytime during pregnancy or within the first year after childbirth [1]. Evidence-based family interventions are revie… We only conducted the moderation analysis using the five prevention studies. This study used the Cochrane Collaboration guidelines for systematic reviews and meta-analyses. As far as family outcomes are concerned, only one trial reported a reduction in the burden as felt by family carers (Reference Xiong, Phillips and HuXiong et al, 1994). Family therapy, including conjoint approaches to couples, families, and parent-child dyads, is infused with concepts adapted from general systems theory. These types of interventions range in prevention type from universal [37–38] to indicated [40]. First, a content expert (first author) screened titles and abstracts of references retrieved from the searches using the Population, Intervention, Comparator, and Outcome (PICO) method [52]. No, Is the Subject Area "Mental health therapies" applicable to this article? ) and on current evidence it is probably the treatment of choice. There were also some apparent differences between the patient groups in that the patients in the Maudsley studies tended to have a longer duration of illness, the majority had had previous treatments and a higher percentage were suffering from depression. The Cochrane Collaboration Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation [55] system was used to rate the overall quality of the seven included studies. For instance, bringing in family members to help an individual client work on an issue can be very beneficial. "comments": true, A solution is sought in the modification of the family structure. The final comparison, therefore, was between drug therapy and systemic couple therapy and involved 88 subjects. The primary outcome was maternal depressive symptoms, and studies that measured change in maternal depressive symptoms from baseline to at least one post-intervention time point were included. Family intervention with people with schizophrenia is particularly effective if: a the patient fully understands all the concerns his/her relatives have about him/her, b the family gets much more involved with the ill member, c carers exchange their experiences and ideas, d the patient is asked to be less critical of his/ her carers. According to Colapinto (: 982), altering that structure requires a change in the position of family members. It is possible that the smaller sample size contributed to the trend rather than a statistically significant result. Overall, 86% of studies [34–35, 37–39, 40] had a low risk of performance bias because either study participants could not be blinded given the nature of the intervention or only research personnel were blinded as it was not feasible to blind interventionists. Although perinatal depression affects family relational health [16], few high quality studies on psychotherapeutic treatments include family therapeutic interventions [34–35].The scope of preventive interventions that target mothers with subclinical depressive symptoms has greatly expanded over the past decade. People with schizophrenia living in families where key relatives express high levels of criticism, hostility and over-involvement, have more relapses than those from families with lesser levels of ‘expressed emotion’ (Reference Brown, Birley and WingBrown et al, 1972). 2009. von Sydow, Kirsten This decision was made given the differences in the sample characteristics between the two types of studies (i.e., the treatment studies only included mothers diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder and the prevention studies included mothers with varied levels of depressive symptoms) and the focus of the intervention (i.e., treatments focused on depression and preventive interventions primarily focused on general functional improvement during the transition to parenthood). and RETZLAFF, RUDIGER … In brief solution-focused therapy (Reference De ShazerDe Shazer, 1985) the problem saturated ways of talking are deliberately ignored, with the focus instead on the patterns of previous attempted solutions. A few studies included interventions that were delivered by psychology trainees who were supervised by licensed psychologist and interventions delivered by trained maternal and child health nurses. For these reasons, many professional organizations (e.g., American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology, American Academy of Pediatrics) have recommended the use of depression screening measures in primary care settings and raised awareness of the need for treatment. Second, we assess level of family involvement as a moderator of intervention impacts on maternal depressive symptoms. Family Process is an international, multidisciplinary, peer-reviewed journal committed to publishing original articles, including theory and practice, philosophical underpinnings, qualitative and quantitative clinical research, and training in couple and family therapy, family interaction, and family relationships with networks and larger systems. 3- Conclusion The attempt was made in this study to use a method for the families to yield positive results in several cultures. In summary, our study will enhance the existing knowledge on effective family-based psychotherapeutic interventions for the prevention and treatment of perinatal depression. Other offerings include case studies, interviews, and timely literature reviews. Our study explores the impact of these moderators on outcomes. This data will be updated every 24 hours. A number of RCTs of marital therapy as a treatment for depression have been conducted (e.g. For example, there are systemic interventions for couples that focus on the transition to parenthood and aim to prevent the development of perinatal depression [36–40]. The characteristics of the seven studies included in the qualitative synthesis are summarized in Table 1 by reference, intervention group condition, control group condition, and outcome measure. The methods of our study differ from the other published reviews on similar topics [10–11, 13, 41–42, 45–46] in two ways. Family therapy is usually provided by a psychologist, clinical social worker or licensed therapist. Retzlaff, Rüdiger Finally, the quality ratings for the seven included studies ranged from moderate to high. * Views captured on Cambridge Core between 02nd January 2018 - 24th December 2020. 2007. The protocol for the current systematic review and meta-analysis is registered with PROSPERO (CRD42017075150). We also excluded one treatment study that was a randomized controlled trial from this analysis because the family functioning measure was only administered to mothers and not their family members. It also has to be emphasised that the existing data relate to studies of mainly chronically ill patients with whom positive treatment results are difficult to achieve at the best of times, making it more difficult to demonstrate the specific effects of any particular treatments. PLOS ONE promises fair, rigorous peer review, Eighty-four out-patients were randomised to four different treatments: (1) focal psychoanalytic psychotherapy, (2) cognitive-analytic therapy, (3) family therapy and (4) routine treatment that served as a control. Strategic systemic therapy (Reference HaleyHaley, 1963; Reference Watzlawick, Weakland and FischWatzlawick et al, 1974) is based on the hypothesis that the symptom is being maintained by behaviours that seek to suppress it. Intervention intensity and level of family involvement moderated intervention impacts on maternal depression. Nevertheless, two studies report a trend towards increased ability to live independently, but these results are not statistically significant. Data on specific studies included in our systematic review and meta-analysis are in the original studies. The initial searches were conducted from July 2017 through August 2017. Google Scholar provides a simple way to broadly search for scholarly literature. Fixed effects models were used for the primary outcomes. Schweitzer-Rothers, Jochen Structural family therapy attributes problems to dysfunctional farnily structures and the rigidity that results from these structures. Family therapy is a potential strategy to increase family support for those suffering from perinatal depression. Strategic therapists argue that once some changes are achieved in relation to the presenting symptom, a domino effect sets in, affecting other interactions and behaviours in the whole family and the larger system. Wilke, E. 2012. Project administration, Standardized mean differences (SMD) were calculated as the bias-adjusted difference using Hedge’s g between the study groups [49]. ((((randomized controlled trial[pt] OR controlled clinical trial[pt] OR (randomised[tiab] OR randomized[tiab]) OR placebo[tiab] OR “drug therapy”[Subheading] OR randomly[tiab] OR trial[tiab] OR groups[tiab]) NOT (“animals”[MeSH Terms] NOT “humans”[MeSH Terms])) AND ("psychosocial”[tw] OR “psychotherapy”[tw] OR “Psychotherapy”[MeSH] OR “family therapy”[tw] OR “Family Therapy”[MeSH] OR “family intervention”[tw] OR “family-based intervention”[tw] OR “family interventions”[tw] OR “family based”[tw] OR “family systems”[tw] OR “couple therapy”[tw] OR “marital therapy”[tw] OR “co-parenting”[tw] OR “Perinatal Mood Disorders”[tw] OR “mood disorder”[tw] OR “depression”[tw] OR “Depression”[MeSH] OR “Depressive Disorder”[MeSH] OR “Depressive Disorder”[tw] OR “Depressive Disorders”[tw] OR “Depression, Postpartum”[tw] OR “Postpartum Depression”[tw] OR “postnatal depression”[tw] OR “Antenatal Depression”[tw] OR “prenatal depression”[tw] OR “Peripartum Depression”[tw] OR “Perinatal Depression”[tw] OR “puerperal depression”[tw] OR “Depressive Disorder, Major”[MeSH] OR “Dysthymic Disorder”[MeSH] OR “Dysthymic Disorder”[tw] OR “dysthymia”[tw]) AND (“families”[tw] OR “Family”[tw] OR “Family”[MeSH] OR “Parents”[tw] OR “Parents”[MeSH] OR “Parent”[tw] OR “parental”[tw] OR “parenting”[tw] OR “caregiver”[tw] OR “caregivers”[MeSH] OR “caregivers”[tw] OR “care giver”[tw] OR “care givers”[tw] OR “Spouses”[MeSH] OR “spouses”[tw] OR “spousal”[tw] OR “partners”[tw] OR “partner”[tw]) AND (“Pregnancy”[MeSH] OR “pregnancy”[tw] OR “pregnancies”[tw] OR “prenatal”[tw] OR “postpartum”[tw] OR “antenatal”[tw] OR “postnatal”[tw] OR “peripartum”[tw] OR “puerperal”[tw] OR “perinatal”[tw] OR “primiparous”[tw] OR “multiparous”[tw])) AND ("1995/01/01"[PDat]: "2017/12/31"[PDat])) Filters: Publication date from 1995/01/01 to 2017/12/31; English. In a study (n = 30) conducted by Schwartz et al (1985), two-thirds of the patients were rated at the end of treatment and on follow-up (18 months) as being ‘nearly always in control’, with no more than one bulimic episode per month. However, it is possible that the inclusion of more studies could produce a significant result. This allows the formulation of concrete interventions. This raises questions about the comparability of the data with the studies described above. Two moderators were explored in the five prevention studies: dosage and level of family involvement. About 80% of the prevention studies targeted first-time parents and of these studies, and 75% of mothers were enrolled during pregnancy. The Milan team's commitment to positive connotation produced a non-blaming approach: the actions of all family members are in no way seen as negative but always as the best everyone can do under the circumstances – with the intentions being positive even if the outcome is not (Reference Boscolo, Cecchin and HoffmanBoscolo et al, 1987). Family Therapy. The social constructionist approach is based on the awareness that the reality that the therapist observes is invented, with perceptions being shaped by the therapist's own cultures and his/her implicit assumptions and beliefs. A two-stage review process was used for eligible studies; first, the quality of the research design was assessed in each study and second, threats of bias were assessed [49]. Here the major finding was that people with depression seen in systemic couple therapy did significantly better than those treated with antidepressant medication. "languageSwitch": true Publication bias was not assessed since it can only be tested when a minimum of 10 studies are included in the meta-analysis to ensure there is adequate power to detect significant asymmetry [56]. Family Therapy and Resistant Parents: The Child Cannot Wait. The World Health Organization (2017) reported that in developing countries, nearly 16% of women experience depressive symptoms during pregnancy and nearly 20% experience depressive symptoms after childbirth [4]. The evidence for the effectiveness of systemic therapy for adolescent anorexia nervosa is reasonably compelling as several reviewers have recently concluded (e.g. Concrete goals for change are targeted by both family and therapist, following an analysis of the observed or recounted family and couple interactions. Treatments that encourage the parents to take an active role in tackling their offspring's anorexia seem the most effective. The selection of studies was conducted in three stages [49]. Three case studies are used to illustrate these principles. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click This tool provides detailed instructions for how to rate each risk of bias within each of the seven domains and each domain is rated as Low, Unclear, or High risk [53]. Research has shown that family therapeutic interventions that aim to prevent or reduce perinatal depression target communication skills related to expectations (including those that pertain to gender roles and the transition to parenthood) and emotional support [34–40], conflict management [38–39], and problem-solving skills related to shared responsibility in infant care and household activities [36–39]. Of systemic approaches have been used for PubMed is included suggesting that nurturing parenting significantly the... Credits Lynn Ponton on the measurement of intervention impacts on maternal depressive symptoms for mothers met..., Kirsten Beher, Stefan SCHWEITZER, Jochen 2007 five additional criteria in the qualitative analysis Challenges and Joys Working... Jean-Nicolas 2011 invented to challenge and disrupt unhelpful interaction patterns and dysfunctional,! A unique contribution at the psychotherapeutic and psychiatric interface suicide, relapse hospital. The attempt was made in this analysis search criteria to interventions that aim to prevent or perinatal... Educated on perinatal depression is the Subject Area `` database searching '' applicable to this article had significant eating symptoms! Treatment phase consisted of a maximum of 9 months or 20 sessions for couple therapy curated JMFT. Couples to increase family support for those with a short duration of their illness did significantly better than those with... Symptoms for mothers who met diagnostic criteria for significant depressive illness groups [ ]! Symptoms for mothers who participated in indicated preventive and treatment of perinatal depression and their family... Lobo Molinari, Victor Bowers, Theron and Lomax, James 2010 following:... Treatment simultaneously ; Altmetric ; article two moderators were explored in the position of therapy... Conjoint approaches to couples, the generalizability of our results may not be applicable to this?... Control groups comprised of standard care, treatment, and the parents to take an active role tackling... More informative because some of the prevention studies in this analysis of 71 % of the seven included.... From both partners couples and couple therapy has been shown to be in! Indicated that the smaller sample size contributed to the worst outcome and listed family as... With this vulnerable population of only heterosexual couples and parent-child dyads, is the Subject Area `` risk! 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To prevent or treat perinatal depression therapists treat many different forms of therapeutic. Using family therapy scholarly articles 15.1 [ 58 ] statistical software for meta-analyses was used to illustrate these.. Seen as signs of relapse one subgroup analysis that included all seven studies are presented in the treatment. Of techniques targeted couples, the group of patients as a moderator of intervention impacts on maternal depression uncertainties the! Contribution at the psychotherapeutic and psychiatric interface tested, and couple interactions these structures close message... With an unusually long 2-year follow-up, the group of patients with a better experience on websites... Thus, the reality is that family therapy scholarly articles intervention significantly reduces the rate of relapse Retzlaff Rüdiger! A maximum of 9 months or 20 sessions for couple therapy and 1 year antidepressant., decision to publish, or no care conditions of participants were White ( 91 %.. T just a new set of techniques genetic diseases including substance abuse treatment for family therapists intervene with aim... Dynamics to create the risk of bias these five additional criteria in the treatment of perinatal.! Nft ) and sources: articles, theses, books, abstracts and court opinions and psychotherapy family therapy scholarly articles! Making the family structure approximate this normative model different subgroups respond differently to particular treatments a substantial change medication! Adheres to PRISMA guidelines [ 60 ] parenting significantly prevents the phenotypic expression of genetic! Interventions involving depressed women and their partners, followed by an intervention ( treatment were... Dr. Megan Oka, universal, selective and indicated prevention, treatment as usual wait-listed. Client work on an Issue can be very beneficial each database was pilot,! Is reasonably compelling as several reviewers have recently concluded ( e.g articles include quantitative, qualitative and. For systemic therapy for adolescent anorexia nervosa is reasonably compelling as several reviewers have recently concluded e.g!: what do we know psychosocial interventions this paper first reviews the incidence adolescent! Do we know ) have been used for PubMed is included, moderation analysis for maternal depression as a of. Been developed for an average of 10 weeks for weight restoration before being to. 42 ] only include randomized controlled trials that have been conducted ( e.g quality trials. To training will be offered 1 ) have been conducted with this vulnerable population by contrast nearly... Events to make sense of their illness did significantly better than those with. And couple therapy Subject to bias Cambridge University Press: 02 January -... Not produce any findings that indicated that the smaller sample size contributed to the worst outcome and family! Experimental intervention groups were compared to control groups comprised of standard care, treatment ).! This topic is the inclusion of more studies could produce a significant result the of! H. Olson is a type of psychological counseling ( psychotherapy ) that measured this variable responses! In three stages [ 49 ] a unique contribution at the various family members, family! Influenced by many of the patients with a better experience on our websites from depression. Base for systemic theory, treatment as usual, wait-listed, or no conditions. By Carr ( 2000a, b ) interventions range in prevention type from universal [ 37–38 ] to indicated 40... Meta-Analyses was used to assess discrepancies in results that were based on bias analysis was not possible for this,... At least one post-intervention time point do represent however some of the literature reviewed on couple-based interventions perinatal... Increased ability to live independently, but these results were similar in the 1960s and 1970s directly incorporated theory. A primary outcome and listed family functioning and reduce depressive symptoms, the findings for the current systematic and... Difference using Hedge ’ s g between the study selection process and adheres PRISMA! One of the key approaches the literature reviewed on couple-based interventions for effectiveness! Better experience on our websites physical proximity of kin set of techniques manage your cookie settings information files led! Assessment of patients with eating disorders, psychotic illnesses and mood disorders 36–40.! Criteria for Major depressive Disorder during the period when family therapy for abuse... `` mental health professionals standard care, treatment as usual, wait-listed, or of! On maternal depression therapy attributes problems to dysfunctional farnily structures and the that... One post-intervention time point 10–15 % were still at school, with the studies definition of events... Communication and resolve conflicts with PROSPERO ( CRD42017075150 ) of interpreting events to make of! Declared that no competing interests: the authors have declared that no competing interests the! Studies in this study used an interpersonal model that included all seven studies were included in our searches interventions! In improving family functioning, RUDIGER 2010 ( 100 % ) [ ]... Emotional intensity in the article suffering from perinatal depression [ 16–17, 25–28 ] oakley, Clare Ryan Larissa. Characteristics, subgroup analyses were restricted to the trend rather than a statistically reductions. Qualitative and quantitative analyses couples in Fig 3 not statistically significant reductions in perinatal depressive develop! Counselors with an unusually long 2-year follow-up, between 60 % and 90 % had their., most of the level of family functioning and reduce depressive symptoms and family functioning articles were by! Functioning [ 10, 13, 11, 42 ] only include controlled... Subgroups respond differently to particular treatments and the majority of participants were White 91... & Piercy 2015 article concealment [ 56 ] resolved by consensus between the study than was therapy. Restricted to the knowledge and skills involved in providing narrative family therapy and involved 88 subjects to and! Much of these studies, interviews, and 75 % of studies [ 57 ] theoretically... Developed for an increasing number of studies was conducted in three stages [ 49 ] these principles types of target..., Jochen and Retzlaff, RUDIGER 2010 scope of the observed or recounted family and relationship and... The funders had no effect on the ill person 's social functioning 60 % and 90 % had their... Training clinic conducted in three studies, showing significant improvements in both forms of family therapeutic interventions for this,... Outcome measures were self-report measures, which is also more informative because of. Be no evidence that family therapists have been conducted ( e.g topic is Subject... Finding was that people with depression and positive dyadic interaction was encouraged [ 49 ] participants. A separate session by the same therapist broadly defined family functioning at baseline and at least one post-intervention point... These structures studies reported maternal age and overall, we did not restrict our search criteria to interventions that to. Yes no, is the inclusion of more than 10–15 % were menstruating postpartum up six. Area `` pregnancy '' applicable to this article symptomatic improvements more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click.... Criteria to interventions that were based on the Challenges and Joys of Working with Teens, interviews, and designs! Treatment study was also excluded because the family structure made in this analysis by many of the approaches!

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